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Full text of "New jobs in our town that can best be built of wood."

NEW JOBS 



illll'lll! 



OUR TOWN 



'i^' 





1^- Mf 




A Message to Contractors: 



TIMBER trussed roofs, for such jobs as you see in 
this booklet, once were tasks for the specialist, the 
kind of work you would have to sublet or pass up 
entirely. They meant heavy timbers, special orders, and 
the like. Some lumber yards could not supply this 
material. It is to let you know that "them days are gone 
forever" that we present this booklet to you. 

Today, you can do this work yourself, with your regular 
crews of skilled and unskilled work- 
men, just as some contractors all 
over the country have been doing at 
a good profit for several years. For 
the materials you can come to our 
yard as usual, and buy what you're 
accustomed to buying: the 2x4s, 
2x6s — up to 2xl2s for most of the 
work, with occasionally a little 3- 
inch stock, and once in a while the 
narrower widths of 4-inch stock. 

The reason why we can handle 
these jobs here at home (you doing 
the contracting, and buying the tim- 
ber from our yard stocks) is a set 
of technical improvements developed 
by lumber industry experts, start- 
ing with some good, workable ideas 
from abroad. 

This new system of making timber trusses is one of the 
results. Everybody knows that wood is strong, and ex- 
perience has taught you that wood, itself, is stronger 
than the joints you could make in commercial practice. 
That is why those heavy timbers had to be used wherever 
the load was heavy. There had to be room for all the 
bolts, nails, and notches that would be required. Only 
part of the strength of the wood could be used at the 
joint, which meant that you'd have to use more and 
heavier timber than you otherwise would require. 

Look at the pictures in this booklet, which show typical 
structures built with the Teco Connector System. These 



YOU Can 
Do the Work 

WE Can 

Sell the Materials 

LOOK! See 
What Others Did 



connectors spread the load over a large part of the cross 
section of the wood instead of concentrating all of it in 
one place as a bolt would do. These connectors make 
most of the timber do its share of the work of holding 
up the load, with very little left to loaf on the job. That 
means your customer does not have to pay for any loafing 
timber. He gets greater value than ever from his timber 
trusses. You can install smaller pieces, stock sizes, the very 
stuff you're accustomed to using. 

Many contractors have become ac- 
quainted with these Teco connectors 
by working on big defense jobs, 
where of course they are used as a 
matter of efficiency and economy. 
If you are not familiar with Teco 
Connectors, come in and learn more 
about them, and how simple they 
are to use. Let us show you some of 
the designs which have been pre- 
pared by the lumber industry's Tim- 
ber Engineering Company — typical 
designs for typical buildings such 
as your customers and ours will 
require. If we need any expert help 
on how to handle this business, we 
can get it in a hurry from the Teco 
engineers in Washington. 
Some materials may be difficult to obtain, especially 
now, but you can build these timber trusses in a hurry. 
We don't have to order this kind of lumber. We have 
it now. 




nKMHunnnimHiiinmi, | 



^mk 



Where Others Have Used Yard Lumber 



Community Buildings 

School Buildings 

School Gymnasiums 

School Auditoriums 

School Shop Buildings 

Grandstands 

Grandstand Roofs 

Bleachers 

Chapels 

Churches 

Post Offices 

Park Shelters 

Band Shells 

Fire Stations 

Park Pavilions 

Armories 

Commercial Buildings 

Garages 

Bowling Alleys 

Arenas 

Restaurants 

Bakeries 

Work Shops 

Theatres 

Packing Houses 

Warehouses 

Resort Hotels 

Small Airplane Hangars 

Factories 

Mi 11 work Plants 
Pulp Plants 
Lumber Mills 
Steel Mills 



and TECO Connectors 



WE CAN BUILD 


THESE, TOO 


Barns 


Govt. Projects 


Silos 


Tank Foundations 


Bins & Racks 


Signs 


Storage Sheds 


Towers 


Stores 


Park Shelters 


Schools 


Band Shells 


Grandstands 


Work Shops 


Churches 


Dance Halls 


Garages 


Skating Rinks 


Bowling Alleys 


Theatres 


Restaurants 


Packing Houses 


Scaffolding 


Loading Platforms 


Retaining Walls 


Ramps 


Form Work 


Lumher Sheds 



Farm and Market Buildings 

Farmers' Markets Farm Bridges 

Dairy Barns Exhibit Buildings 

Hay Storage Sheds Grain Storage Sheds 

Stables Farm Gates 



Machine Storage Sheds 


Equipment Sheds 


Government Projects 


Bridges 


USHA Housing 


Foot Bridges 


Defense Housing 

Navy Subsistence Buildings 

CCC Camp Buildings 


Highway Bridges 
Temporary Bridges 
Railroad Bridges 


NYA Shop Buildings 


Portable Bridges 


Mess Halls 
Ice Plants 
USO Buildings 


Guard Rails 
Sway Bracing 
Falsework 
Arch Centering 


NYA Dining Halls 


Continuous Stringers 


NYA Resident Centers 


Pipe Trestles 



Shipyards 
Mold Lofts 

Shipyard Assembly Buildings 
Shipyard Storage Buildings 
Docks 
Wharves 
Piers 

Loading Docks 
Crane Supports 
Pile Caps 
Walking Beams 
Pier Fenders 
Coffer Dams 
Pile Driver Frames 
Form Work 

Other Buildings 
Ore Bins 
Coal Tipples 
Pipe Racks 
Oil Derricks 
Roundhouse Buildings 
Plate Racks 
Casing Racks 
Poster Panels 
Distillery Racks 
Barrel Racks 
Lookout Towers 
Tank Towers 
Migratory Camps 
Transit Sheds 
Repair Shops 





Faster — Better — 3iore Eeonomicai 

WOOD COI\STRUCTIO]¥ 



One of California's many wood framed, diagonal 
sheathed, earthquake resistant school buildings, 
Teco connectors were used to strengthen the framing. 





4 Washington, D. C, lumber and millwork company erected this build- 
ing for Its own use. The materials needed to build the 49 span trusses 
were taken from the regular retail stock, (Teco Typical Design /Vo. 372) 




A panel built, portable 
house, to he used by- 
tenant farmers, in which 
Teco split rings were 
used to strengthen the 
roof frame, (Teco Typi- 
cal Design Ao. 323} 



A typo of modern school building that any contractor 
van build. In this job. Tec ft connectors were used 
for attaching cross-member framing braces. 




A hay shed erected near 
Washington, D, C, us- 
ing Teco split rings in 
the frame construction, 
(Similar to Teco Typi- 
cal Design \n. 265) 




Pure Oil Company portable storage building 
using 30 span pitched trusses, fabricated with 
2" lumber stocked by local building material 
dealers. (Ask for Teco Typical Design \o. 34&) 



A maintenance building using 40' span trusses, 
which were built with stack lumber carried by- 
local building material dealers, (Typical De- 
sign Vo. 223) 



HERE ill pictures is the story of the easiest, 
fastest and most economical method of 
construction offered to the building trade in 
many years. Every building illustrated was 
constructed with Teco connector joints. None 
of the workmen needed any special training 
that the members of your crew don't have. 
Every piece of lumber and hardware used could 
have been purchased at our yard. 





Interior of a garage built in Houston, Texas, using Teco con- 
nector type 43' span trusses. You can fabricate trusses like 
these in the shop and deliver the parts to the job ready to 
erect, (Teco Typical Design iVo. 291) 



A storage building erected for the Florida Gold Citrus 
Corp., at Lake Alfred, Fla,, using 46' span trusses similar 
to Teco Typical Design I\o, 224, 





W or k mi' It assembling section of a barrel rack, making ready 
to hoist it into position, Teco Typical Design I\o, 217 will 
show you how to build the most economical type of barrel rack. 



Ritetvay Store, Houston, Texas. Modern timber trusses fit 
naturally into modern architecture, (Similar to Teco Typi- 
cal Design ISo. 344) 





Granflstands such as this can be erected quickly, 
easily and economically by using the Teco connector 
type of construction, Teco Typical Design No, 109, 
(See page 8) 



A city park shelter house built in ISew Or- 
leans, La., using short span timber connector 
roof trusses. Buildings similar to this (Teco 
Typical Design ISo, 263) can be used in 
many open-air gathering places. 



"1 



A low-cost, easy-to-erect agricultural building in Crockett, 
Tex., that was built using the Teco system of construction. 
All materials and labor needed were available in the com- 
munity, (Teco Typical Design Dlo, 314) 




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GENERAL PURPOSE BARN 

A gambrel roof general purpose barn being erected near 
GoodviUe, Penna, ISo specially skilled labor is required to 
build a barn of this type. Installing Teco connectors is a 
simple process that any good mechanic can do merely by 
reatling the instruction sheet. 



Hog barn under construction^ a typical example of the 
large barn using ordinary sizes of lumber (2" material) 
and Teco connectors. 



DAIRY BAR\ 

A dairy barn built near Flemington^ IS, /., using Teco 
split rings in the roof trusses. 



.!^^>^, 




CATTLE BARN 

Right: Detail of the roof trusses used in the cattle ham helotr. 




This cattle barn built in Multnomah County, Oregon, used 'Z^y-inch 
split rings in the joints, A design similar to the one illustrated on the 
opposite page was used, (Teco Typical Design I\o, 216} 










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Spiii Ring 

fat. 



Mulieable Iron 
Shear Plate 

Pal. 




1. S/ititt' jttiiit fttr Umer rhttrti lif trmm uith nwmh^'rti 
lemfHtrarily iiaihd Itifit'thtr ti tiih' httritif: hi»h lutUh, i arv 
muHt hi' takrii fo /tlumh tlw ttrilL Jftr tlrdt citith' stttnvii 
I* a aintfth- ttn'thatt tit kvt'ft tlrifl iti litw. \unihrrfi on luriii- 
lurit nHMtHt ttht'ti rftttiHt'ttthlinfi tfn' juitit afti'r tinnnittn. 




2, i uttiufL Split Ring <,roar«>«. Jaint mvmhern arv laid 
apart f*tr grtHtring nfHratiftn in rnntart farit^. lUtlt hitUt 
act #1* fiuith* fttr pitttl. I '•^" t-h-ctrir drill i» rvram- 
nii,,.l,,l i.,r iuttini: I t^plit ring grintrt'n. 




The How and Why 



TECO Timber Connectors are devices for in- 
creasing the strength of the joints in timber 
construction. They are placed between adja- 
cent faces of overlapping timbers to develop the 
full working stresses of the lumber. The connectors 
accomplish their purpose by providing a large area 
for the Mirnuuiding timber to bear against. This 
eliminates the small bearing area provided by a 
bolt, and enable> the stresses to be distributed over 
inaetieally the entire cross section of the timbers 
involved. Connectors hold the timbers in place 
luuvh nune firndy and rigidly than bolts ami nails 
add permit u>e of lumlxM' in <'con(>mi('al sizes. 
1 he comiectors are placed in the tindjer in precut 
grooves or through pressure emlHulment. 

Tertf Cattitvviiirs Are lielter^ Save Money 

l\\r Mihir and <*IIi(it-ncy (»f ((HinrclcU"- lie in 
\\h'>v facts: 

1. Tliey tran-mit large loads between members 
uilli(»ut s(*riously nMlucing the cross-sedicHial area 
oi tli(^ mend>ers joined. 

2. Tlirv pcnnil thr u^c of vtnictiiriil ipjality 
lumber ill -mall -izes. 

3. They reduce tin- amount of hardware re- 
cpiired — fewer bolts, rods, washers, etc. 

4. They can l>e easily installed. 

5. They are inexpensive. 

6. They are well suited either to factory fabri- 
cation or on-the-joli fabrication of the building 
part^. and tlie erection is economical. 



Three Typeg o/ (annertorg 

At the lop of these pages are shown the types 
<d connectors most commordy used in short span 
timl>er roof trusses, nan.cK • wpljt ring^. toothed 
rings, and shear platef^. 

The split ring is used for wood-lo wood connec- 
tions and is applicable to all types of timlier trusses. 
It is placed in pre-cut grooves in adjacent timber 
mhi^d. surfaces and the meml>erw ^n^ }^,.],] fo^..^^.,.. ..:♦}, 

10 



»/*TECO Connectors 



bolts. It is easily installed and is most economical 
to use when power is available for the fabrication. 
Page 10 illustrates the proper fabrication method 
when split rings are used. The method is a simple 
one, and, with reasonable care, any contractor or 
builder with his usual skilled and unskilled labor 
can get a completely satisfactory job. 

When Power Is ISot Available 

The toothed ring is very similar to the split ring 
from the use standpoint but requires embedment 
under pressure. The toothed ring carries slightly 
less load and only when power is not available is 
this connector recommended. Because of its 
smaller load-carrying capacity it is used exten- 
sively on lighter trusses, such as trussed rafters 
and barn trusses. Page 11 illustrates the proper 
fabrication and assembly method when toothed 
rings are used. The equipment shown in the pic- 
tures can be used to embed the connectors, or a 
hydraulic jack or clamp can be used equally as well. 

For Wood'to-Steel Connection 

The shear plate is also placed in a pre-cut groove 
and is primarily intended for wood-to-steel connec- 
tions. The shear plate has been devised to elimi- 
nate crushing of the timber surface under the 
bolt, thereby developing the full shearing value of 
the bolt itself. They are used to tie the trusses to the 
building wall and to anchor timber columns to 
foundations. A pair of these devices may also be 
used back to back for wood-to-wood connections 
and this is advisable when the structure needs to be 
portable and demountable. The shear plate has 
its own special grooving tool but is installed by 
following the same procedure as is shown for the 
split rings. 

♦ 

Teco Connectors and Engineering Service Are 

Supplied by 

TIMBER EXGIIVEEKIXG €0. 

Subsidiary of National Lumber Manufacturers Association 

1337 Connecticut Avenue 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 




Pressed Steel 




Shear Plate 


Toothed Ring 


Pat. 


Pat. 




2. Bolt hole being bored in members of a lumber joint 
to be assembled with Toothed Rings, Members held tem- 
porarily in place by nails. 




2. After the holes are bored, the members are lifted 
apart and the joint assembled with a high-strength rod, 
oversize plate washers and a ball-bearing washer. Toothed 
Rings are placed between overlapped faces. Acme threads 
on the rod and nut provide speetl and efficiency in drawing 
the joint together. 




3, Joint completely drawn together tcith Toothed Rings 
embedded. The high-strength rod is next removed and 
replaced with an ordinary machine bolt and suitable 
washers. 



11 



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15 




A bowstring truss, fabricated at the Rock Island Lumber 
Co, yard at Albert Lea, Minn,, being hauled to the build- 
ing site. This type of short span truss, sometimes pre- 
fabricated at the lumber yard, is being used in garages, 
storage sheds, etc, (Teco Typical Design ISo, 267) 



Your Customer Ciets More for 
His Money tbe TECO Way 

YOU can get jobs like these if you show your prospects that 
you not only give them the most modern design, but also the 
newest and most economical method of construction. Show 
them how they save money on materials. Teco short span trusses 
can be built with lumber regularly stocked at our yard. The Teco 
connector type of construction is faster, saving money in labor 
costs. Fabricating, assembling and installing Teco short span 
trusses doesnH require special skills, and your regular crew can 
do it. 




rrrrrrry^rt^^Siz-^^rrrrfi 



in Army chapel, typical of those being built in almost every Army 
camp ill the country, that can be altered slightly to fit the requirements 
of almost any community, (Teco Typical Design \o. !ilO) 





W orkmeu preparing to hoist the roof trusses 
into place at a Safeway Store job in San Fran- 
cuico, Cal, Trusses of this type can be fabri- 
cated and assembled at the building aite, using 
lumber stocked at our yard, (Teco Typical 
DtHign \o. :i29) 



This brtftuhr httUHf tthtncs that nuHlvrn glut'd lami- 
nated cntititrtit titfti tK applicable to nmall an nidi as 
large farm buildings. 



Interior of a Safeway Store built in W ashington, D, C„ showing the roof trusses 
built trith Teco connector joints. The lumber needed for this type of construc- 
tion if ftiycked by €Hir yard, (Teco Typical Design .\o. 344) 



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16 



Here are some more buildings that have been con- 
structed with Teco connector joints in roof trusses 
or framing. Several of these probably will be built 
in this area in the near future. Why not be pre- 
pared when you get a chance to sell your services 
by getting information on Teco connector type struc- 
tures? If you have a specific job in mind drop in 
to see us. If we can't tell you what you want to 
know, the Timber Engineering Company can. 





The 26' span trussed rafters used in the construction of this build- 
ing, in the 62nd Street Housing Project, Miami, F/«., have been 
used successfully in many Government housing jobs anil other 
small buildings, (Teco Typical Design i\o, 157) 



Constructing an Army mess halL using Teco 
connectors in the roof trusses, (Teco Typical 
Design /Vo. 179) 






U^a^^liL^i l^il^j rjiilMt 



Short span timber connector trusses on the County Garage, Hoffman, 
Minn, These simple trusses are easily built by carpenters if they use 
Teco connectors, (Teco Typical Design JSo, 39) 



17 



Car shvd t/i'iii>j; built for an Automobile Agency in 
Albany, New York, The cantilever trusses were 
constructed with Teco toothed rings in the Joints, 
(Teco Typical Design l\o, 205) 

l-^ft — A Farmers" Market built in Pensacola, Fla,, 
using Teco connector joints in the roof trusses, 
(Similar to Teco Typical Design No, 78) 

Below — Grandstand roof trusses. Union High 
School, Klamath Falls, Ore, Numerous grand- 
stands similar to this design (Teco Typical Desisn 
No, 109-A) have been built. 




Termite Protection — Positive and Easy 



MOST (uulractors know (now that the first mad ''scare" 
of the hugs is past! that it is easy enough to prevent 
termite attack in any building. AH one needs to do 
is to insert at the hottom of the wood part of the structure a 
m* lal shield which is so shaped that subterranean termites 
cannot pass through or around it, between the wood and the 
groufid. Except in the tropics, practically all the termite 
damage is caused by subterranean termites, and these insects 
will die within a ver\ short time unless they can have frequent 
access to the ground and its moisture. An\ tiling that contain^ 
cellulose (including library books) thr\ will devour if they 
can, but whatever they eat nmst be so situated that they can 
comnmte bac k and f<jrth between their food and their under- 
ground \ii}itu\ Thev uill build little tunnels or ^'shelter tubes" 
over and afound ^uc h obstacles a^ the> ( amicit go through. 

Id I)Io< k tlhir cntranrr tlir nirtal "trrinilr >|)i«'bl i> inter- 
posed at the top of the foundation, and if every possible point 
of contact belHcen structure and earth is protected in this 
manner it is safe to guarafitee that that building \^iIl ^ufTeI no 
damage fittm trftiiitt^ ^o lon^ a^ thf ^Incld i('iiuiin> in plart* 
and iinbfokrn. 



tict*^. In other words it must be adaptable to practically any 
wall and corner arrangement, and must be assembled easily 
and simply so as to make it inexpensive from the labor stand- 
point. The price of the shields nmst be reasonable, and it 
must be easy to figure out what to buy for any job. 



Key to Life-Long Protection, Quick Installation — the 
Teco Slip-On Connector 

MO SOLOCfffMC 
JUST tUP iH 




I K< () trliiiilc- ^hlt'l(^^ arc 
prt-ri^ioii-iiiacie iiiiiforrii in 
^i/,<'. Joiiilh are iiiadt* t<r 
mjlr-ljght bv palt-nled cun- 
ruTtorf. (loiuietturt. hiidc 
qitj(klv iiilo plarr tightly, 
MM urt-ly. No Mtldrriiif!; i> 
nr^r^^ar^ n<i Itnikni jitirits. 



Tlu*n**s a (jitrit It^ It 

There nm^l l»r no ria«k^ rmi h<di*s in lhi> ^l^^h^. h<»wrv<-r. 
ajkI no jioorl) fitttHJ j(»inl^ between the strips of metal, tiov^ 
nor in the future. Kor aJthcaigh termites are blind, thev do 
grt arnund; and they are so small that it d<»eh n(»l require 
nun li of an opening for thrm to crawl through. 'I he only 
worthwhile shieltl prolcn lion agaiiiM lrrmil«*s is perfe* t pro- 
tcNiioii. or as n<*ar [M*rf<*it as lujman ingenuitv ran ron<ei\e. 
and that i> uliv the drsign *^kill of the TirnU-r Knginerring 
(!om|)an> nialf uas set lo u«.rk on tlir job. 

The goal wt for thrm was to deviie a ftvi^lrm of termite pro- 
tection uhith anv got^i mechanic could install in anv rie\% 
ftlrui lur<' that is built a<4ording to accepted (<instru< tion [irac- 



\l(i>l j*aiti( ulailv. hourvii. liir proti'(tion must rcallv j*io- 
tert. I here nmst br no ragged rdg<*s. no wavv lines, no open 
joints, and no reliance upon soldi r to tnainlain tight joints 
b«*<ause the solder joint fails when ti njpiratuti- t hanges 
expand or * ontra* I the two surfaci^s. 

Di'ninnvd for Convvnienee^ Hit ill lo IaihI 

I< < M trrinitc shields take the uncertainties and clumsinrss out 
of irftnitr [irotin lion. They rrally |)r«»te< t. and tlnv are 
disignrd for ihr gnatrst rasr of installation in thr building. 
Ihey arr not ordinary shr» t njrtiii but 26-gauge, copper- 
Iwaring stf*el. corrosion rrsistant in itsidf and further pro- 
ti-cted bv zinc-coating with the hot dipped jiroirss Tliii* 




18 



^^^^ 



assures many years of trouble-free use, and even greater 
durability is offered by the use of 16 oz. copper, which is 
available in Teco shields on special order only. 

This exceptionally durable metal is matched by the clever- 
ness of design and the smoothness of manufacture. Teco 
Termite Shields are not cut out on shears, but die-pressed, the 
sort of finished production one naturally expects of a care- 
fully engineered design. 

Joints Slip Together^ Stay There 

It is in the joints where this expert planning shows up most 
strongly. No solder is needed, no time is wasted in trying to 
make them fit (because they slip together easily), but they 
stay joined regardless of expansion and contraction of the 
steel as temperatures change. The sketch on page 18 shows 
why and how this can be done. 

Patented Teco Connectors, standard in shape and size to fit 
the other standardized sections, provide "pockets" of exactly 
the right size to accommodate a strip or corner in either side. 
Even though there may be some slight movement within this 
pocket, as the temperatures vary, there will never be enough 
to leave any slightest open space. 



Standard Items 

The illustrations show how these Teco shields are arranged 
in standard patterns and sizes, each of which is shipped in 
standard packages. In determining which pattern is required 
it is only necessary to consider whether both surfaces of the 
wall must be protected against termite traffic. Safest, of 
course, is to have the metal canopy extending out from the 
top of every masonry wall on both sides, throughout. This 
is not always necessary, however, where one face of the wall 
can be and will be inspected occasionally, as on the interior 
side of a basement wall where no cupboards or other equip- 
ment will obstruct the view, and where the wall itself is either 
solid or well capped. For such installations a 6" strip is used. 

Labor-Savings Money-Saving 

Whichever type of Teco shield is specified, you will find it 
easy to obtain in the size you require, and most economical 
to apply. Your workmen will waste no time in trying to fit 
varying patterns, for each Teco section slips quickly into 
its connector and in a few minutes the building is protected 
against subterranean termites. 



TECO STANDARD TERMITE SHIELDS — PAN AND STRIP TYPE 





PAN STRIP SHIELD (P-60) 
for walls 8 ' or less 




(SO) 

STRIP OUTSIDE CORNER 
with rounded corner 



PIER PAN -(PR) 

for piers 8"x8' 
or less 
rounded corners 





PAN CONNECTOR 
(PC) 



PAN DOUBLE INSIDE CORNER (PT) 
for "T" wall 



PAN END (PE) 
hall section Pier Pan 




PAN FILLER (PF) 
available in 4" and 8 lengths 



PAN INSIDE-OUTSIDE CORNER 
for right angle junction 




(SI) 

INSIDE CORNER STRIP 





5 STRIP SHIELD (S-60) 




STRIP CONNECTOR 
(SC) 



19 



SAFETY OF TIMBER 



PERHAPS the most prominent facts in the 
minds of laymen concerned with the relative 
fire safety of timber and other construction mate- 
rials are that wood burns and some of the others 
do not. The actual performance of timber and 
other structural materials exposed to fire is seldom 
considered further. A review of facts, however, 
resulting from fires in timber structures and 
structures of other materials indicates that other 
factors than that of combustibility are equally, 
if not more, important. 



Fire Hazards In Structures 

In structures such as hangars, shops, garages, 
warehouses, etc., the fire hazard is not due to any 
appreciable extent to the structural material itself, 
but to the contents or to external conditions to 
which the building is exposed. It is the nature of 
the contents which determines the rate of fire 
spread, once a fire is started. Where the contents 
are highly inflammable, fires generally spread 
through an entire building within a few minutes 
and temperature builds up rapidly. Where metal 
trusses are used, ijuildings are frequently rendered 
unsafe almost immediately because of the possible 
collapse of the unprotected metal. 

Contrast this with structures built of timber. 
An outstanding example of the fire safety value 
of a lumber-built airplane hangar equipped with 
sprinklers was demonstrated at the U. S. Bureau 
of Standards. Seventeen fire tests consumed 40 
army airplanes and hundreds of gallons of gaso- 
line and oil. After the final fire test, in which four 
planes were placed in the hangar with tanks filled 
with 360 gallons of gasoline and 40 gallons of oil, 
and 15 gallons of gasoline spilled on the floor and 
ignited, the hangar was still in excellent condition, 
there being only two lightly charred places on the 
wood-sheathed walls and roof. 

In a six-story warehouse fire at Tacoma, Wash- 
ington, the fire raged for nearly four hours and 
in spite of the fact that fire broke out on three 
floors by following up an elevator shaft, no fail- 
ures occurred either in the wood laminated floors 
or in the heavy timber supporting columns and 
stringers. In almost the entire building the orig- 
inal timbers were subsequently covered over and 
permitted to remain in use. 



Time to Failure 

Based on standard fire temperatures of the 
American Society for Testing Materials tests of 
building materials, a temperature of 1100° F. is 
reached within six minutes. At this temperature 
certain structural metals have less than ^o of their 
normal tensile strength, and at 1700° F. they will 



not support the dead weight of a structure. Where 
there are highly combustible and volatile contents, 
such as oils, paints, lacquers, and certain processes, 
the fire may be a "flash" type and reach maximum 
temperatures of 2000-2500° F. in a few seconds, 
which will cause unprotected metal to collapse so 
quickly as to preclude the possibility of fighting 
the fire advantageously. 

Wood will burn, but it loses its strength only 
in proportion to the degree of charring under fire 
temperatures. Penetration tests on wood exposed 
to standard fire temperatures show that in gen- 
eral wood chars and burns at the rate of about one 
inch in depth in 33 minutes. Based on the size 
of the members in the structures and a safety 
factor of 4 for the timbers, the actual failure time 
may be roughly computed for exposure to standard 
fire temperatures. For example, it is not unrea- 
sonable to expect that a tension member may have 
approximately three-fourths of its section charred 
before the stress in its remaining section is such 
that the timber might be expected to fail. Where 
timber joints are Assembled with modern timber 
connectors, these may be expected to carry the 
load as long or longer than the chord members, 
due to the fact that the connectors are insulated 
from the heat and continue to carry most of their 
load even though the wood around the bolts may 
be charred by conducted heat. The higher the 
hazard or degree of combustibility of contents, the 
greater the relative fire safety of timber con- 
struction as compared to materials which may 
fail quickly under sudden and high temperatures. 



Salvage Value 

A fire in a building with unprotected metal 
trusses usually results in a twisted mass, requir- 
ing considerable expense in clearing it away. In 
contrast, damaged timber trusses are often re- 
pairable in place, or are readily dismantled with 
common labor, and unburned timbers are salvage- 
able. 

Trusses of other materials than timber, when 
falling, almost invariably pull over the side walls, 
while wood trusses generally cause no such dam- 
age when the walls are of brick or masonry con- 
struction. 

Insurance Rates 

While insurance rates may vary for diflferent 
localities, heavy timber construction is generally 
recognized as having a much more favorable fire 
insurance rate than unprotected metal. Timber 
construction, sprinklered, is considered an excep- 
tionally good fire risk and carries a proportion- 
ately low rate — in some instances it is the lowest 
obtainable. 



Printed in I'SA. 

' 4? r5M 12-»1